In this book we explore patterns of meanings in texts, that are essential for guiding your students in reading and writing. Patterns of language at the level of texts are known as discourse patterns. We first introduced the discourse systems of lexis, appraisal, conjunction and reference in the R2L writing assessment in Book 3. By now you should be very familiar with recognising these patterns in your students’ texts. This book provides more detail about each system, that you will find immensely useful in analysing texts, planning lessons, and diagnosing your students’ learning.